Gene mutationembossed wristbands blamed for lower breast cancer cure rates in China than in the WestThe Truth About Cheap Wedding Favors Are you looking to buy one thing for your much better half? Gifts are a special method to express your enjoy to the loved ones. You do not have to wait for a festival or a celebration to purchase one thing for this precious a personal in your life. Way something for your more beneficial half on frequent occasions may possibly further strengthen your relationship. Particularly, if you are purchasing something for a woman, then you"ve several issues to purchase. Developing a plethora of gift choices for a woman, you can also get puzzled in green house proper gift for your loved one. You do not need to burn your wallets so that you can purchase souvenirs for your ex-girlfriend. Homemade involving jewelry likewise best sellers in industry industry. People can make jewelry out of anything including old soda cans, broken glass and crushed covers. How much they"re worth depends on how unique the pieces are and how well they"re caused. The same can be said for homemade cool keychain, phone decorations and brooches. The best combo key tag printing suppliers offer several standard formats or designs. Most offer free artwork templates of each design guide you place your branding elements and promotional voicemails. The best suppliers have experts in plastic key tags standing by to aid in free samples, design insights and price. Count on your supplier for custom keychain tag printing options, too. The numbers of no shape or size limits to combo key tag printing, so let your design juices stream. For the teens: Involve your teenager in the preparation of party giveaways for his/ her next birthday situation. This is a fun way to involve your kid your past preparations. You can choose giveaways matching the theme for the party also. You can plan something special for each guys and girls. If it"s a spa birthday party for girls then you can do giveaway cute make-up bags to girls containing lipstick, nail polish and so forth. For the guys celebrating a great movie theme party, it is giveaway DVDs to all the guests to be able to back non commercial. The LG shine is a slider phone with great looks and advanced terms. This stunning handset boasts of a huge screen this can help a good background for viewing silicone keychain images and videos. Unit fitted has a two.0 mega pixel camera with flash and the lens quality. You can also get digital sound of music since the phone has an electronic digital music competitor. It is having a glittering shine as its body is comprised of metal. Now, you can create your friends envious and jealous displaying your contact. Customers like to know you just care about the subject and family members. Hence you have to send out thoughtful gifts at special occasions. You could send a cup cake and the personalized cards on the birthday or anniversary of one"s client. They will be touched that you took bear in mind this special occasion for these products. Besides this, you gift personalized pocket diaries on the clients their own name and designation printed on so it. Another interesting gifting idea is giving a box of handkerchiefs with your client"s initial inscribed on them. Key chains do not possess be round, square, triangular or oblong. They can be customized from a variety of methods. An unique shape getting a tongue or pickle will do to get people concerned with what you are trying encourage through your business or operation. This is any way to inflate your usage. These are among the best quick fundraising ideas for schools I"ve seen in past few years. Most of us are deprived of time to mess with tons of merchandise, so ideas like discount cards and Pizza Hut fundraisers are great for every group!
BEIJING -- Chinese researchers claim, based on a three-year research, that gene mutation shall be blamed for the lower breast cancer cure rate in China than in the West, as it cripples the effect of a classical drug for treatment.
The mutation in a liver enzyme among East Asian people may severely impair the conversion of tamoxifen (TAM), a standard drug for breast cancer post-operation therapy in most cases, said Xu Binghe, a professor at the Cancer Hospital with Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences.
About 75 percent of breast cancer patients in China have estrogen receptors (ERs) expressed in their tumors. Nurtured by estrogen, a female hormone, the receptors can facilitate the growth of tumors, leading to their metastasis and recurrence, so these patients usually receive endocrine treatment after their operation, said Xu, an oncologist on breast cancer for more than 30 years.
"Globally, TAM is a classic drug for this type of cancer and has been used in clinical treatment for nearly half a century since the 1970s," Xu said.
According to him, TAM, a small molecule compound, can block the binding of human estrogen to tumor receptors.
"TAM looks so similar to estrogen that it can confuse the receptors, which then unites with the drugs and rejects the real estrogen," said Xu. "So to speak, TAM is like a fake key that can match the "lock" of tumors, and estrogen, the real key, instead cannot open the "door" anymore as it shall not fit in a blocked "keyhole.""
ER-positive breast cancer patients usually need to take TAM for five to 10 years after surgery. The drug has helped cut down the recurrence rate by half and the death rate by more than 30 percent. TAM is also very economical, costing less than one yuan (about 15 cents in U.S. dollar term) a day. The drug, with its effectiveness and low cost, has been enlisted in both international and domestic guidelines for breast cancer treatment.
"However, in our practice, we feel that it is not as effective on Chinese patients as it is on Westerners," Xu said. Although the overall survival rate of breast cancer patients in China has improved dramatically in recent years, it is still seven to 10 percentage points lower than that in the United States.
A special enzyme named CYP2D6 in the liver, which plays a key role in converting TAM into active and valid ingredients, has caused attention among Xu and his coworkers on the team. It has more than 100 types of gene mutations, and CYP2D6*10 is the most common polymorphism among Asian populations.
"Is this mutation crippling the effectiveness of the drug?" This question has emerged from day-to-day treatment and prompted Xu"s team to conduct a retrospective study of nearly 1,000 patients who have been treated at their hospital.
Testing their blood samples revealed that 20 percent of the patients have the CYP2D6*10 genotype with both chromosomes mutative. These patients have a lower five-year survival rate and a higher recurrence rate than others.
"It indicates that the gene mutation obviously impacts the conversion of TAM, which lowers the drug"s effectiveness to only 1 percent of the expected efficacy. In other words, to achieve the effect of one pill for ordinary patients, these cancer sufferers have to take 100 pills," said Ma Fei, a core researcher on Xu"s team from the Cancer Hospital.
The researchers also found that the effect of toremifene and aromatase inhibitors, alternatives to TAM, are not affected by the gene mutation in the CYP2D6 enzyme.
"Since alternative drugs are more expensive, there has been a long-time misunderstanding that patients who use them are more wealthy and have access to better overall medical conditions, leading to a lower cancer recurrence rate among them," Ma said. "It seems now that the gene mutation should shoulder the blame."
He noted that this study is very important for all East Asian populations, as the gene mutation happens in one in every five people while it is quite rare in Westerners.
"We can"t expect experts in America and European countries to do the research, as they don"t encounter the problem. The difficulties that China has faced can only be solved by ourselves," Ma said.
The results of the serial researches by the team were published twice in the International Journal of Cancer, the official journal of the Union for International Cancer Control, and the latest was selected as a cover article in November.
Xu and his team will, for the next step, study the feasibility of multiple alternative therapies for patients with the above gene mutation, aiming to modify and improve the treatment guidelines through more rigorous clinical research and to improve the breast cancer cure rate in China.